Studies with large cohorts have investigated the relationship between long-term exposures to PM2.5 and ozone and mortality; others have estimated the health effects of fine particles at low concentrations (e.g., below 12 μg per cubic meter for PM2.5). However, most of these studies have included populations whose socioeconomic status is higher than the national average and who reside in well-monitored urban areas. Consequently, these studies provide limited information on the health effects of long-term exposure to low levels of air pollution in smaller cities and rural areas or among minorities or persons with low socioeconomic status.


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