Tokugawa Nariaki (1800-60) had become Mito daimyo in 1829. He was influenced by Aizawa Seishisai’s ideas to revere the emperor and repel the barbarians. After the Oshio rebellion in 1837 and especially after learning of the British Opium Wars against China in 1840, Nariaki and his Confucian adviser Fujita Toko (1806-55) implemented reforms in Mito by conducting a land survey, realigning tax quotas, using new agricultural techniques, and recalling samurai from Edo.


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