Note that new technologies designed to achieve competitive advantage may constitute state and/or trade secrets, each having crimerelated competitive implications (e.g., development or acquisition of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist organizations and/or theft of proprietary information by corporations). Thus, as previously acknowledged, new technologies are adopted for illicit purposes as well as countervailing policing and security purposes. Further, although perpetual innovation is intended to improve matters such as organizational processes, products, services, and profits etc., actual improvements are often unclear or subjective. Not everyone agrees for example, that a new gadget or way of doing things is better, or that these will result in greater benefits when compared to costs at the level of the organization much less within broader society. At the time of its adoption, a given technology might be just too complex to understand or operate, or not cost effective given extant states of research and development in varying scientific, technological, organizational, economic, and political environments. Even if technology is affordable to develop, adopt, implement and master by personnel involved it may nonetheless result in more harm than good and be considered economically inefficient in the grand scheme of outcomes. And because perpetual innovation only and necessarily occurs under conditions of competition, winners and losers will eventually emerge unless a technological balance is struck and maintained among competitors. For this to occur, all parties involved must believe that achieving technological advantage is either futile or undesirable, and that their would-be opponents are not secretly trying to resurrect or invent new threatening capabilities. Crime versus policing and security are inherently competitive and distrusting enterprises, and there is nothing novel about these technology-related principles, although considering them explicitly in theoretical terms as integral aspects of crime, policing and security is long overdue.


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