1. The Cartesian Theory. Unlike Plato, René Descartes (1569-1650) considers the organic body of living organisms, including the human body, as an "automaton" of inertial type. It is an automaton in the sense that it does not need any for the explanation of its functioning; it is "inertial" because it is based on the determinism of the principle of inertia. The two most fundamental dilemmas of the Cartesian dualistic theory are the "logical-metaphysical" and the "physical-mathematical" problems.


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