University education, across the whole of the continent, was a luxury to which only the wealthiest and brightest could ever aspire. Since the creation of the first university in 1088 [1. There are multiple accounts placing Bologna’s university founding in 1088, but it is not certain. ] A.D. in Bologna, Italy, universities have been considered to be self-regulated, scholastic guilds of students and teachers who work under the sanction of an ecclesiastical or civil authority.


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