is selecting only particular plants with desirable characteristics to grow, so that all the new plants grown will have these new desirable characteristics. Selective adaptation instead of the natural process of where only the strongest survive. The art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to more complex molecular techniques (see cultigen and cultivar). Plant breeding has been practiced for thousands of years, since near the beginning of human civilization. It is practiced worldwide by individuals such as gardeners and farmers, or by professional plant breeders employed by organizations such as government institutions, universities, crop-specific industry associations or research centers.

is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result of artificial selection or which is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are maintained during propagation.

or cross breeding, is the result of mixing, through sexual reproduction, two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species or genera. Using genetic terminology, it may be defined as follows. Hybrid generally refers to any offspring resulting from the breeding of two genetically distinct individuals, which usually will result in a high degree of heterozygosity, though hybrid and heterozygous are not, strictly speaking, synonymous. A genetic hybrid carries two different alleles of the same gene. A structural hybrid results from the fusion of gametes that have differing structure in at least one chromosome, as a result of structural abnormalities. A numerical hybrid results from the fusion of gametes having different haploid numbers of chromosomes. A permanent hybrid is a situation where only the heterozygous genotype occurs, because all homozygous combinations are lethal.

is the transfer of pollen from the flower of one plant to the flower of a plant having a different genetic constitution.

is the process by which pollen is transferred to the female reproductive organs of a plant, thereby enabling fertilization to take place. Like all living organisms, seed plants have a single major goal: to . The reproductive unit is the seed, and pollination is an essential step in the production of seeds in all spermatophytes (seed plants).

is the process of creating new plants from a variety of sources: seeds, cuttings, bulbs and other plant parts. Plant propagation can also refer to the artificial or natural dispersal of plants.


is usually carried out vegetatively (non-sexually) by grafting or budding a desired variety onto a suitable rootstock.

is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. The upper part of the combined plant is called the scion while the lower part is called the rootstock. The technique is most commonly used in asexual propagation of commercially grown plants for the horticultural and agricultural trades. The success of this joining requires that the vascular tissue grow together and such joining is called i, which is a natural phenomenon in which trunks, branches or roots of two trees grow together. It is biologically very similar to grafting.


is a means of plant propagation in which a portion of an aerial stem grows roots while still attached to the parent plant and then detaches as an independent plant. Layering has evolved as a common means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural environments. Layering is also utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants.

is to cause a plant or cutting to grow roots.

(liquid, powder, gel)

are chemicals that regulate plant growth.


is when a piece of the stem or root of the source plant is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil. If the conditions are suitable, the plant piece will begin to grow as a new plant independent of the parent, a process known as striking. A stem cutting produces new roots, and a root cutting produces new stems. Some plants can be grown from leaf pieces, called leaf cuttings, which produce both stems and roots. The scions used in grafting are also called cuttings.

are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth substances) with some morphogen-like characteristics. Auxins have a cardinal role in coordination of many growth and behavioral processes in the plant's life cycle and are essential for plant body development.

(Genetically Modified Organisms)

involves the selective removal of parts of a plant, such as branches, buds, or roots. Reasons to prune plants include deadwood removal, shaping (by controlling or directing growth), improving or health, reducing risk from falling branches, preparing nursery specimens for transplanting, and both harvesting and increasing the yield or quality of flowers and fruits.


Corporation applies crop science, bioprocessing and materials science for the production of agricultural-based biomaterials made from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum).

is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).

refers to a specific symptom affecting plants in response to infection by a pathogenic organism. It is a rapid and complete chlorosis, browning, then death of plant tissues such as leaves, branches, twigs, or floral organs. Accordingly, many diseases that primarily exhibit this symptom are called blights.


or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1852. About two-fifths of the population was solely reliant on this cheap crop for a number of historical reasons. Approximately one million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland.

is the agricultural practice of producing or , plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or farming system at a time. , where more than one crop is grown in the same space at the same time, is the alternative to monoculture. Monoculture is widely used in both industrial farming and organic farming and has allowed increased efficiency in planting and harvest.

is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as fusarium wilt of banana.

is a plant disease of the roots of banana plants. It is a type of Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. The pathogen is resistant to fungicide and cannot be controlled chemically.

Cross breeding wild lettuce with regular lettuce that helps protects against fungus and mildew.

causes major damage to crops in the US and worldwide every year. They can silence the in the host plants from which it obtains water and nutrients. This cross-species gene regulation, which includes genes that contribute to the host plant's defense against parasites, has never before been seen from a parasitic plant. (wiki)

is a plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirements from another living plant. They make up about 1% of angiosperms and are in almost every biome in the world. All parasitic plants have modified roots, named haustoria (singular: haustorium), which penetrate the host plants, connecting them to the conductive system – either the xylem, the phloem, or both. This provides them with the ability to extract water and nutrients from the host. Parasitic plants are classified depending on where the parasitic plant latches onto the host and the amount of nutrients it requires. Some parasitic plants
are able to locate their host plants by detecting chemicals in the air or soil given off by host shoots or roots, respectively. About 4,500 species of parasitic plant in approximately 20 families of flowering plants are known.


Satisfied customers are saying