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Existing Knowledge Base | Fear Appeals in Advertising
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On the contrary, fear control responses lead to message rejection throughdenial, defensive avoidance, and message derogation. The EPPM posits thatfear control outcomes are a result of individual's perceptions of low efficacywhen combined with a high threat message. Therefore,
Climbing the Intervention Ladder to handwashing …
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Additionally, separate studies have revealed the role of threat in afear appeal. For instance, if a message is perceived to be of little threat,then individuals do not respond to the fear appeal. As an example, individualswith very dark skin who tan easily may perceive skin cancer to be an issueonly for those who have light skin that burns easily. These individuals,then, may not feel threatened by the threat of skin cancer and are notmotivated to take any action. Witte (1992a, 1992b) has confirmed that whenperceived threat is low, individuals are not affected by the message. Additionally,meta-analyses by Boster and Mongeau (1984) and Witte and Allen (1996) havefound that message processing increases with perceptions of threat. Thissuggests that the greater perception of threat, the more likely one isto respond to the message. Witte and Allen (1996) suggest that "whileefficacy improves the effectiveness of fear appeals, it appears that threatdrives the persuasive relationship" (p. 23). To give validity to thenotion that threat is persuasive and motivates behavior change, it is predictedthat,
Fear appeals by Kelly Madden on Prezi
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In order to channel this motivation in the proper direction, all fearappeal campaigns should be accompanied by high efficacy messages regardingthe recommended response. For example, a campaign seeking to increase useof sunscreen should include strong efficacy messages that emphasize howeasy, inexpensive, and effective sunscreen is for the user. Additionally,efficacy messages can emphasize new long lasting waterproof sunscreen,or that some zinc oxide sunscreens are colorful and fashionable for outsideleisure activities. Finally, not only efficacy messages about sunscreen,but all recommended responses should seek to increase response efficacy(i.e., the effectiveness of the recommended response) and self-efficacy(i.e., the ease and ability of the individual to perform the recommendedresponse) to maximize the persuasive impact of the efficacy message.
Fear Appeal | Attitude (Psychology) | Fear - Scribd
Consistent with the initial goals of this research, this study has validatedthe major tenets of the EPPM as well as determined that fear appeals area viable alternative for skin cancer prevention campaigns. This investigationsuggests that fear appeal messages constructed according to the theoreticaltenets of the EPPM can be effective in generating message acceptance, andthat such messages can be effective in skin cancer campaigns. Scary messagesdescribing and depicting the terrible things that can happen to one's unprotectedskin were successful when combined with a high efficacy message offeringeasy and effective means of reducing that threat.
DEFINITION OF A FEAR APPEAL Fear appeals are ..
Include efficacy information (self and response)
Critical point: Efficacy outweighs threat
What are fear appeals?
Cognition versus emotion
Extended Parallel Process Model
When and how to use fear appeals
Do these videos:
Increase perceived severity and susceptibility?
Increase perceived self and response efficacy?
How can these videos be improved?
Ways to increase susceptibility?
Enough self and/or response efficacy?
Presenting new fears may be persuasive
Severity (leads to death, cancer, injury, loss of limbs, brain damage)
Susceptibility (3 in 4 people, use of many ages, genders, and races, not just in the city)
Self efficacy (provide steps to take, show others completing the behavior, short amount of time)
Response efficacy (decrease chance of getting disease, number of people who quit)
Plan for today
How to alter perceptions with messages
EPPM is the most referenced fear appeals model today, considers cognition and emotion and offers ways to predict when fear appeals will fail
Reading 9: Botta et al.
The EPPM put to the test: Evaluating four basic propositions
By Kate Whalen
What is fear?
Fear is an emotion.
Emotions are a "subjective set of feelings," or "a cognitive assessment of a situation." Emotions cause you to act in a certain way.
Fear involves arousal and occurs when we are threatened.