Health: Hydrocarbons, which generate volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, are expected to be substitutes for some HFCs in the regulatory scenario. VOCs contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone and particulate matter, which are the main constituents of smog. Smog is known to have adverse effects on human health and the environment. However, a U.S. EPA study on hydrocarbon refrigerant impacts on ground level ozone concluded that the impacts on health of these emissions were not significant. Additionally, it is expected that most end-uses will not use hydrocarbons as alternatives to HFCs, and thus the quantities emitted will be small. Thus, health impacts were not quantified or monetized for this analysis.


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