8. At the upper reach of the conceptual scale there is the interpre- tation of the invisible hand as the prime mover, fons et origo, omniscient monitor, or final cause of economic and all behavior. The four are not conceptually the same, of course, but are used here as if they were and to mean the invisible hand is a beneficent power beyond the will of man-a providential force that is a part of the natural order (Viner 1927, p. 207; 1968, 14:324; Spiegel 1979; Even- sky 1993).


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