The 20th century was a century in which the Muslim world experienced atthe hands of the West -- in the perception of the Muslim world -- a dismantlingof some of its important constructs. The most significant of that was thedismantling of the Ottoman caliph. Because for the first time, the collectiveconsciousness of Muslims, there is no caliph anywhere. And especially in majorpopulation centers of the Muslim world, those that were important at the turnat the beginning of the 20th century: Turkey, Egypt, Iran -- thetraditional forms of rulership were replaced by militantly secular regimes; notonly secular regimes, but militantly secular regimes, which did not evensupport traditional values which were cherished by the people.


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