The chapter builds upon the assumption established in the previous chapters that the successful operation of federalism can be achieved only if it is rooted in liberal democratic constitutionalism. To this end the chapter embarks on an initial journey of theoretical clarification before turning to investigate political culture and civil society as conceptual pathways into the foundation of liberal democratic constitutionalism. The investigation is designed to point up the significance of these two features selected as forming the basis of what we can identify as federal democracy. The chapter concludes by introducing a new classification of models of federal democracy and assesses their significance in relation to the new federal models.


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