The idea that PEDs are objectionable because of possible risks--even despite the hard fact that those risks are rather low--is a failure to consider what sports are: an attempt toaccomplish some difficult physical task or tasks as best possible. If the means involve risk--for example, a ball carrier in football must be tackled to stop his progress, creatingrisk for both the carrier and the tackler--then that risk is simply a part of the sport. Athletes, probably from as early as ever there was athletic competition of even the crudest sort inpre-history, have sought all means that will enable them to perform better. Many of those means have involved risk, as simple physical training itself necessarily does. But the athlete whorefuses to do, for example, weight training may reduce his risk of injury, but he also greatly reduces his ability to compete in his sport, and probably would be unable to continueparticipating in it at all. The long and short of it is playing the game means taking the risks; avoiding the risks means avoiding the game.


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