Grundschule teachers recommend their students to a particular school based on such things as academic achievement, self confidence and ability to work independently. However, in most states, parents have the final say as to which school their child attends following the fourth grade. About one third go to each type of school. There are also special schools run by separately trained special educators. In 2008 there were 407,710 pupils in special schools or 4.8% of the school population – the highest number in Europe. Parent initiatives have led to inclusion in primary particularly in Bremen and Hamburg areas. There is less inclusion in secondary.


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