Travel almost anywhere in the twenty-first century and the language of international commerce, and of the expression of international ideas, is the one spoken by the majority of inhabitants of the nation-state with the world’s most powerful military. Rebecca L. Walkowitz implicitly grapples with this question in her Born Translated: The Contemporary Novel in an Age of World Literature (New York: Columbia University Press, 2015). Arguably, Joyce, in Finnegans Wake, anticipated this now fully fledged phenomenon that shapes the framework in which many contemporary novels are written, published, distributed, and read.


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