There are three persistent problems associated with politicalrepresentation. Each of these problems identifies a future area ofinvestigation. The first problem is the proper institutional designfor representative institutions within democratic polities. Thetheoretical literature on political representation has paid a lot ofattention to the institutional design of democracies. Morespecifically, political theorists have recommended everything fromproportional representation (e.g. Guinier, 1994 and Christiano, 1996)to citizen juries (Fishkin, 1995). However, with the growing number ofdemocratic states, we are likely to witness more variation among thedifferent forms of political representation. In particular, it isimportant to be aware of how non-democratic and hybrid regimes canadopt representative institutions to consolidate their power overtheir citizens. There is likely to be much debate about the advantagesand disadvantages of adopting representative institutions.


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