In many frog species, is highly pathogenic in the laboratory, and even low levels of initial infection can lead to death (Skerratt et al. 2007). In other frog species, such as , can infect tadpoles and adults at persistent low levels without killing them, so that these species act as carriers of the fungus (Skerratt et al. 2007; see section VI below for further discussion of anuran species that can act as carriers of ). In salamanders, some species appear to resist, persist with or clear infections to a greater extent than do frogs (Davidson et al. 2003), suggesting they may act as reservoirs of infection (e.g., the Eastern tiger salamander, ). Weinstein (2009) found that although infected field-collected salamanders () had 100% mortality when brought into captivity, salamanders inoculated with in captivity and housed in dry microhabitats (to mimic summer estivation) were all able to clear infection. Despite these findings, susceptibility appears to vary between salamander species, affecting some more strongly than others. Rovito et al. (2009) reported possible involvement of in drastic, enigmatic Central American salamander declines. Subsequently, Cheng et al. (2011) developed a method for qPCR of formalin-fixed museum specimens and showed that infections were present in multiple Mexican and Central American salamander species, at about the same time that declines were occurring. In addition, two neotropical salamander species ( and ) were found to be quite susceptible to infection in the laboratory (Cheng et al. 2011).


Satisfied customers are saying