Beginning with the revolt of the Maccabeesthere was a strong anti-Hellenist reaction in Palestine which seems tohave spread abroad amongst the Jews of the Dispersion in the earlyyears of the Christian era. It was part of the nationalist movementwhich inspired the Jewish revolt that culminated in the destruction ofJerusalem. This reaction returned to stricter observance of Hebrewtradition, to the use of the Hebrew language, and to the older idea ofcomplete separation from the "gentiles". This reaction was the parentof Rabbinical Judaism. In this stricter Judaism it was no longertolerated to read the scriptures publicly in the synagogue in the Greeklanguage, the observance of the rite of circumcision and all otherlegal ordinances was punctiliously enforced and any familiarintercourse with pagans or the "uncircumcised" was absolutelyforbidden. The Mosaic law was made stricter by rabbinical glosses.


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