Moreover, by the time Freud wrote Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920), the experience of the Great War had prompted him to identify, in addition to instinct of self-preservation or 'life- instinct' (related to the libido), a 'death-instinct' characteristic of the human ego and inbuilt in the entire social system which the ego creates.[25] This death-instinct is indeed capable of bringing about the ultimate extinction of all mankind.[26]

In this dark theory of the state, Freud shows himself to be a strict psychological determinist with little understanding of the full scope of the human spirit which is characterized by a creative force of will and independent of both the Eros and Ananke identified by Freud as the motive powers of civilization.


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