In the meantime, advances in artillery which had made their way into European armies by 1860s undermined military applications of rocketry and after a relatively short reign during the 19th century battlefield missiles became all but extinct. However, efforts to advance military rocketry were renewed after the invention of smokeless gunpowder in 1884. () A Russian artillery expert, Mikhail Pomortsev (1851-1916), actively experimented with rockets at the turn of the 20th century.


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