In summary, it is apparent that all cases referred to speech-language pathologists for stuttering, may indeed be something other than "just stuttering." There are documented cases in the literature of stuttering related to Tourette Syndrome disorders (Van Borsel & Vanryckeghem, 2000), Multiple Sclerosis (Mowrer & Younts, 2001), Parkinson's Disease (Goberman and Blomgren, 2003), and many other motor and neurological conditions (Helm-Estabrooks, 1999).


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